Easy Pace Learning Grammar

Easypacelearning.com

Nouns

A noun is the word that refers to a person, thing or abstract idea.

A noun can tell you who or what.

There are several different types of noun:-

  There are common nouns such as dog, car, chair etc.

  Nouns that refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural)

  Are countable nouns.

  Nouns that refer to some groups of countable nouns, substances,

  feelings and types of activity (can only be singular) are uncountable nouns.

  Nouns that refer to a group of people or things are collective nouns.
   Nouns that refer to people, organizations or places are proper nouns,

  only proper nouns are capitalized.
   Nouns that are made up of two or more words are called compound nouns.

  Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding -ing are called gerunds

EXERCISES:

1. The book was heavy.

2. The child is happy.

3. The box was empty.

4. The synopsis is accurate.

5. The tomato was being baked.

ANSWERS:

1. The books were heavy.

2. The children are happy.

3. The boxes were empty.

4. The synopses are accurate.

5. The tomatoes were being baked.

Verb

The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb

asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states

of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.

In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb is highlighted:

Transitive Verbs followed by Adverbs

back up: support I will back up your story.

bail out: rescue If you run into difficulties, who will bail you out?

break in: make something new fit for use

I broke in my new hiking boots.

breathe in: inhale We breathed in the fresh air.

breathe out: exhale I breathed out a sigh of relief.

bring back: return She brought back her library books.

bring around: persuade

We gradually brought her around to our point of view.

bring up: raise Bringing up children is never easy.

butter up: flatter

We buttered him up, hoping that he would agree to our proposal.

call in: ask to assist I think it is time we called in an expert.

call off: cancel We called off the meeting.

call up: telephone Why don't you call him up?

cheer on: cheer, encourage I will be there to cheer you on.

chop down: fell They chopped down the dead tree.

clean up: tidy

The mayor asked everyone to help clean up the city streets.

fend off: repel The goalie fended off every attack.

ferret out: find with difficulty We managed to ferret out the information.

figure out: solve, understand I can't figure out what happened.

fill in: complete Please fill in this form.

fill out: complete I filled out the form.

fill up: make full We filled up the glasses with water.

give back: return I gave back the bicycle I had borrowed.

give off: send out Skunk cabbage gives off an unpleasant odor.

hand down: give to someone younger

The tradition was handed down from father to son.

hand in: give to person in authority

The students handed their assignments in to the teacher.

hand on: give to another person I am not sorry to hand the responsibility on to you.

hand over: transfer We had to hand the evidence over to the police.

hang up: break a telephone connection

After receiving a busy signal, I hung up the phone.

hold back: restrain, delay He is so enthusiastic; it is hard to hold him back.

iron out: remove I am sure we can iron out every difficulty.

knock out: make unconscious Boxers are often knocked out.

lap up: accept eagerly The public lapped up the story.

lay off: put out of work The company laid off seventy workers.

leave behind: leave, not bring I accidentally left my umbrella behind.

leave out: omit Tell me what happened. Don't leave anything out!

let down: disappoint We will let him down if we don't arrive on time.

live down: live so that past faults are forgotten

This will be hard to live down!

look up: find (information) We looked up the word in a dictionary.

make up: invent She likes to make up stories.

pass up: not take advantage I couldn't pass up such an opportunity.

pension off: dismiss with a pension

He was pensioned off at the age of sixty.

phase in: introduce gradually

The new program will be phased in over the next six months.

phase out: cease gradually The practice will gradually be phased out.

pick up: collect You may pick up the papers at the office.

pin down: get a commitment

When the guest speaker is pinned down, we can set a date for the conference.

play down: de-emphasize He played down the importance of the news.

point out: draw attention to She pointed out the advantages of the proposal.

polish off: finish We polished off the rest of the apple pie.

pull down: demolish

Many old buildings are pulled down to make way for new ones.

pull off: succeed Do you think she can pull off her plan?

put away: put in proper place It is time to put the toys away.

put back: return to original location

Please put the book back on the shelf.

put off: postpone We cannot put off the meeting again.

reel off: recite a long list She reeled off a long list of names.

rope in: persuade to help

We roped in everyone we could to help with the work.

rub out: erase Be sure to rub out all the pencil marks.

rule out: remove from consideration

None of the possibilities can be ruled out yet.

scale down: reduce

Because of lack of funds, we had to scale down our plans.

sell off: dispose of by selling We sold off all the books and furniture.

set back: delay This could set back the project by several years.

shout down: stop from speaking by shouting

The crowd shouted down the speaker.

shrug off: dismiss as unimportant He attempted to shrug off the mistake.

single out: select from others You have been singled out for special attention.

size up: assess I quickly sized up the situation.

sort out: organize It will take some time to sort out this mess.

sound out: talk with to learn the opinion of

We attempted to sound him out.

stammer out: stammer They stammered out their apologies.

sum up: summarize

He summed up the discussion in a few well-chosen words.

summon up: gather I attempted to summon up my courage.

take in: absorb We tried to take in the new information.

take out: invite to a restaurant May I take you out for supper?

take over: assume control They will take over at the beginning of June.

talk over: discuss Let us talk it over before we decide.

tear up: destroy by tearing She tore up the letter.

think over: consider I need some time to think it over.

think up: invent What will they think up next?

track down: search for and find We finally tracked him down at the bookstore.

trade in: give as part payment

Why don't you trade in your old vacuum cleaner for a new one?

try on: test clothes by putting them on

I tried on the new suit, but it didn't fit me.

try out: test by using Would you like to try out my fountain pen?

turn away: refuse admission

The event was so popular that many people had to be

turned away.

turn back: reverse direction

Every fall the clocks must be turned back by one hour.

turn off: deactivate by using a switch

I turned off the radio.

turn on: activate by using a switch Please turn on the light.

water down: dilute The soup has been watered down.

wear out: gradually destroy by wearing or using

My jacket is wearing out, although it is only a year old.

write down: make a note I wrote down the instructions.

write off: cancel, regard as

They were forced to write off several irretrievable debts.

write up: compose in writing I used my notes to write up the report.

Adjectives

Adjectives describe or give information about nouns.

The good news is that the form of adjectives does not change; it does not matter if the

noun being modified is male or female, singular or plural, subject or object.

Some adjectives give us factual information about the noun - age, size colour etc

(fact adjectives - can't be argued with). Some adjectives show what somebody thinks about

something or somebody - nice, horrid, beautiful etc

(opinion adjectives - not everyone may agree).

EXERCISE:

1. Yesterday she heard ________________ news. (to surprise)

2. The ______________ tools must be returned by five o'clock. (to rent)

3. The ______________ rabbit stayed perfectly still. (to frighten)

4. We had a ________________ experience. (to frighten)

5. The play is ________________. (to entertain)

ANSWERS:

1. surprising 2. rented 3. frightened 4. frightening 5. entertaining

Preposition

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word

or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.

A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to

the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:

The book is on the table.

The book is beneath the table.

The book is leaning against the table.

The book is beside the table.

She held the book over the table.

She read the book during class.

In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in

time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated

adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an

adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against,"

"along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside,"

"between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from,"

"in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over,"

"past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath,"

"until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.

In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional

phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.

Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The

prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.

The spider crawled slowly along the banister.

The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional

phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled.

The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for

chewing up a new pair of shoes.

Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the porch,"

which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding."

The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain

was somewhere in his office.

Similarly in this sentence, the preposition "in" introduces a prepositional phrase "in his

office," which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers.

Conjunction

You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following

example:

I ate the pizza and the pasta.

Call the movers when you are ready.

Coordinating Conjunctions

You use a coordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to

join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the

conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a coordinating conjunction:

Lilacs and violets are usually purple.

In this example, the coordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns.

This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists,

for the screenplay was written by Mae West.

In this example, the coordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses.

Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth

dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.

Here the coordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on

rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends."

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of

the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because,"

"before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when,"

"where," "whether," and "while."

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction:

After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.

The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause

"After she had learned to drive."

If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.

Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause

"If the paperwork arrives on time."

Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed.

The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause

"when his computer crashed."

Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and

baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.

In this sentence, the dependent clause "because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer

people and fewer germs" is introduced by the subordinating conjunction "because."

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent

sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and,"

"either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "so...as," and "whether...or."

(Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a coordinating conjunction

 linked to an adjective or adverb.)

The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions:

Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.

In this sentence, the correlative conjunction "both...and" is used to link the two noun

phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence:

"my grandfather" and "my father".

Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop.

Here the correlative conjunction "either...or" links two noun phrases:

 "a Jello salad" and "a potato scallop."

Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school.

Similarly, the correlative conjunction "whether ... or" links the two infinitive phrases "to

go to medical school" and "to go to law school."

The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.

In this example the correlative conjunction "not only ... but also" links the two noun

phrases ("the school" and "neighbouring pub") which act as direct objects.